War History

Legislation

Iraq War

Enduring Freedom

Gulf War

Vietnam War

Korea

WW II

WW I

Cold War

Agent Orange

Legislation

legislationFor more on Legislation: Go to Thomas Legislative Information on the internet from the Library of Congress or The Senate & House Committees:

Press Releases

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Iraq War

Operation Iraqi Freedom

3/20, 2003 to 5/1, 2003 (Major Combat Operations) Military Presence - 2012

"America is a friend to the people of Iraq. Our demands are directed only at the regime that enslaves them and threatens us. When these demands are met, the first and greatest benefit will come to Iraqi men, women and children" ~ George W. Bush

Defense Casualty Analysis System
A Brief History

iraq war

U.S. Army 1st Lt. J.D. Caddell (left), from Bravo Company, 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, discusses maneuvers with a team leader from the Iraqi Commando Battalion, 18th Brigade before a squad live-fire exercise at Kirkush Military Training Base, Diyala province, Iraq, on June 27, 2010. DoD photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Ted Green, U.S. Navy. (Released)

iraq war

U.S. Army Pfc. Robert Parker (2nd from left) provides fire support for his squad members during a live-fire exercise at the Kirkush Military Training Base in the Diyala province of Iraq on June 27, 2010. During the exercise, U.S. and Iraqi forces trained to clear mined wired obstacles, bunker complexes and on reacting to contact. Parker is assigned to Alpha Company, 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division. DoD photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Ted Green, U.S. Navy. (Released)

Simultaneous to the war in Afghanistan, the United States and its allies threatened military action if Iraq did not abide by all of the numerous UN resolutions of the past ten years, including UN Security Council Resolution 1441 (2002), which called on Iraq to cooperate unconditionally with UN weapons inspectors to verify that Iraq was not in possession of WMD and ballistic missiles.

The United Nations Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) found no evidence of WMD, but could not verify the accuracy of Iraqs weapons declarations. On March 20, 2003, in the face of Iraqs resistance to open inspections by UN weapons inspectors, the U.S. and coalition forces launched Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, a combined air and ground assault. U.S. troops seized Baghdad after just twenty-one days.

A broad insurgency that ebbed and flowed over the next seven years challenged efforts to create a democratic Iraqi government and threatened open sectarian warfare between minority Sunni and majority Shia, with northern Kurds aspiring to regional autonomy amid the unrest. On May 1st, 2003, U.S. President George W. Bush declared the end to major combat operations in Iraq.

Re- published from: Military Casualty Information: click here 

More information can be found my downloading the following PDF’s

Enduring Freedom

Operation Enduring Freedom

"Winning in Afghanistan is having a country that is stable enough to ensure that there is no safe haven for Al Qaida or for a militant Taliban that welcomes Al Qaida. That's really the measure of success for the United States" ~ Leon Panetta

Source: Interview on ABC This Week/June 27, 2010

Defense Casualty Analysis System
A Brief History

In response to the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York's World Trade Center and the Pentagon, President George W. Bush launched the Global War on Terror (GWOT). As it evolved, his objective was two-fold: to destroy al Qaeda, the Taliban, and other terrorist groups in Afghanistan and around the world, and to remove Saddam Hussein from power to forestall threats from his presumed possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Operation ENDURING FREEDOM began on October 7, 2001, when the United States launched military operations in Afghanistan, including airstrikes against Kabul and Kandahar. In sustaining military operations for over a decade, American troops continue to fight a widespread insurgency and establish a viable government. On May 1, 2011, US Navy SEALS killed al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Pakistan.

Re- published from: Military Casualty Information:

http://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/

Gulf War

The Persian Gulf War
1990 - 1991

"The totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. A new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. There is new ground to be broken and new action to be taken. There are times when the future seems thick as a fog; you sit and wait, hoping the mists will lift and reveal the right path. But this is a time when the future seems a door you can walk right through into a room called tomorrow" ~.George H. W. Bush

Defense Casualty Analysis System
A Brief History

The Persian Gulf War began on August 2, 1990, when approximately 100,000 Iraqi Army troops crossed the Kuwaiti border. The United Nations Security Council swiftly condemned Iraq, passing Resolution 660 demanding an immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. After consulting with Saudi King Fahd, on August 6, 1990, President George H.W. Bush ordered the deployment of U.S. ground, air, and naval forces to the Arabian Peninsula.

Named DESERT SHIELD, the initial phases of operations focused on deterring an invasion of Saudi Arabia and preparing to liberate Kuwait. Saddam Hussein's failure to comply with UN Security Council Resolution 678 of November 1990, which set January 15, 1991, as the deadline for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, provided the impetus for the next phase of the campaign. The offensive war, Operation DESERT STORM, began on January 17, 1991, with air operations against Iraqi forces in Kuwait and selected targets inside Iraq.

On February 28, 1991, a mere 100 hours after the coalition launched its ground offensive, U.S. Central Command liberated Kuwait and halted offensive operations. With the approval of the UN Security Council, a formal cease-fire took effect on April 11, thus ending the Persian Gulf War.

Re- published from: Military Casualty Information: click here


Vietnam War

The Vietnam War
1964 - 1973

"No event in American history is more misunderstood than the Vietnam War. It was misreported then,
and it is misremembered now" ~ Richard M. Nixon

Source: Richard Nixon - No More Vietnams, 1985

DEFENSE CASUALTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM --
A Brief History

After eight years of warfare between the French and the communist-led Viet Minh, the 1954 Geneva Agreements ended France's colonial rule and partitioned Vietnam into a communist-controlled North and a non-communist South backed by the United States. In the South, beginning in 1957, communist Viet Cong waged a guerrilla campaign against the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem and drew increasing support from the North. The United States tried to bolster Diem's government with increasing numbers of advisers and material aid.

In 1963, as the insurgency appeared to gain strength, South Vietnamese military officers overthrew Diem but the situation only worsened. In August 1964, following a North Vietnamese naval attack on a U.S. warship, the U.S. Congress approved the Tonkin Gulf Resolution (P.L. 88-408), authorizing President Johnson to expand conventional military operations in Vietnam without a formal declaration of war.

During 1965, to prevent the imminent collapse of South Vietnam, the United States launched Rolling Thunder, a systematic bombing campaign against the North, and started committing ground combat forces in the South. The purpose of Rolling Thunder, never achieved, was to compel the North to stop helping the Viet Cong. By April 1969, despite U.S. military personnel in the South peaking at 543,400, victory remained elusive and more of the American public began to turn against the war.

Rolling Thunder was suspended and in 1969 U.S. troop withdrawals began. Between 1970 and 1972, bombing of the North resumed intermittently and sometimes intensively but ground redeployments continued and the bulk of U.S. forces left the South. The Paris Peace Accords, signed on January 27, 1973, proved to be a temporary truce rather than a genuine peace. In the wake of North Vietnam's multiple assaults, South Vietnam collapsed in the spring of 1975. As North Vietnam took over, President Gerald R. Ford declared the Vietnam War over.

Source: Re- published from: Military Casualty Information: click here

Korea

The Korean War
June 25, 1950 - July 2 7, 1953

"Once war is forced upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end. War's very object is victory, not prolonged indecision" ~ Douglas MacArthur

Source: Address to Congress, Apr. 19, 1951

Defense Casualty Analysis System
A Brief History

The Korean War began on June 25, 1950, when North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) launched a surprise attack on neighboring South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea). Against the expectations of the North Koreans and the Soviet Union, the United States immediately provided military support to South Korea, and the UN Security Council passed a resolution (UNSC Resolution 82) demanding a North Korean withdrawal to the 38th Parallel. Within days of the initial assault, UN forces under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur began planning a large-scale counterassault, culminating in the Battle of Inchon in September 1950. In the months following the invasion at Inchon, UN troops forced the North Korean Army to retreat, capturing the capital of Pyongyang and reaching North Korea's northernmost border at the Yalu River. With secret backing from Moscow, in October and November 1950 hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops moved into North Korea and forced the South Korean and UN troops to retreat.

By the summer of 1951, the conflict on the ground stalemated. While aerial bombing of North Korea and localized battles and skirmishes continued, the two sides exchanged little territory over the next two years. The conflict ended with the signing of an armistice on July 27, 1953. It preserved the prewar geographic division of Korea, keeping North Korean and South Korean troops on active alert on opposite sides of the Military Demarcation Line.
Re- published from: Military Casualty Information: click here

WW II

World War II
December 7, 1941 - August 1 5, 1945

"Wars may be fought with weapons, but they are won by men. It is the spirit of the men who follow and of the man who leads that gains the victory" ~George S. Patton

Source: Cavalry Journal (September 1933)

"The cost in misery, lives lost, and economic devastation is unparalleled in the course of human history" ~ Author Unknown

Defense Casualty Analysis System
A Brief History

World War II was the largest and most violent military conflict in human history. Official casualty sources estimate battle deaths at nearly 15 million military personnel and civilian deaths at over 38 million. Fought largely between two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Axis, the war engulfed Europe, North Africa, much of Asia and the world's oceans. Germany, Japan, and Italy led the loosely cooperating Axis nations. The major Allies were the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, although a great many other nations committed forces.

The worldwide struggle officially began with the German attack on Poland on September 1, 1939, followed quickly by Great Britain, its Commonwealth dominions, and France declaring war on Germany. With the defeat of France in 1940, Great Britain fought off a German air campaign and escaped invasion. The German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 brought that nation into the war and opened a major new theater. In Asia, the Japanese had been fighting to take over China since 1931. A surprise Japanese attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii in December 1941 brought the United States into the war on the side of the Allies and opened a 45-month struggle in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and Asia.

The American and British-led invasions of North Africa and then Italy, along with Soviet successes, turned the tide against the Axis in Europe. The Allied landings in Normandy in June 1944 opened a western front and, coupled with continued Soviet offensives in the east, brought about the eventual defeat and unconditional surrender of Germany in May 1945. The war culminated with the United States dropping atomic bombs on two Japanese cities and the unconditional surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945.

WW I

World War I
1914 - 1918

"Those boys up there were still in that Hell, and the end wasn't in sight yet. Closing my eyes I could still see those mangled and bloody bodies of my buddies, and I began to wonder what it was all about." ~ Morris Albert Martin

Source: The Library of Congress

The Great War

Defense Casualty Analysis System
A Brief History

On 28 June 1914, in Sarajevo, a Serb nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. Due to a network of competing alliances, a European history of nationalistic rivalry over colonies and military dominance, and the importance of being the first to mobilize reserve forces for war, this small event initiated what was then the largest conflict the world had ever experienced.

The Austro-Hungarians, allied with Germany, made demands on Serbia, backed by Russia, which was in turn allied with France. Great Britain supported Russia and France in what was known as the Triple Entente.

In the event of war with Russia and France, the German Schlieffen Plan envisioned a quick victory over France, which necessitated violation of the neutrality of Belgium, so that it could then turn all its attention to Russia, which would mobilize much more slowly. Within one week of Austro-Hungary's 28 July declaration of war on Serbia, most of Europe was embroiled. Japan, an ally of Great Britain, joined in on 23 August, thus extending the conflict to the Pacific.

The Ottoman Empire also would come in on the side of Germany and extend the war into the Middle East, while Italy would side with Triple Entente in 1915. By the time the Great War (as it was known prior to World War II) ended in 1918, more than nine million soldiers and a further five million civilians had died.

The initial German advance through Belgium and into France was successful, but ultimately ran out of steam short of Paris in the face of stiffening French and British resistance. As each side tried to outflank the other, a series of opposing defensive trenches soon stretched from the English Channel to Switzerland.

Coupled with machine guns, barbed wire, and modern artillery, the fortified lines led to a static battle of attrition on this front. The introduction of chemical weapons and the tank brought short-term advantages but no significant change in the front lines. The battle lines were not as static in the East, but neither side could gain the upper hand over the other.

The year 1917 saw great changes in the war. Cumulative French manpower losses and mutinies brought its military to the brink of collapse. Similar war weariness contributed to Czar Nicolas' abdication and Russian withdrawal from the conflict. But the German use of unrestricted submarine warfare, which resulted in the death of U.S. citizens on the high seas, brought the United States into the war on 6 April.

The subsequent injection of the American Expeditionary force and its two million soldiers offset Germany's ability to focus all its forces on the western front in 1918. A series of German offensives in early 1918 brought the first major gains of territory in the west since 1914, but Allied ripostes regained much of the ground and drove Germany back toward its own borders as the year progressed.

By October, the Austro-Hungarian Empire had disintegrated and the Ottoman Empire had surrendered. On 11 November 1918, Germany agreed to a ceasefire. With the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919 the "war to end all wars" formally ended.

Re- published from: Military Casualty Information: click here

Cold War

(1945 ~ 1991)

cold war

"...from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent of Europe." Winston Churchill, Britain's Prime minister during World War II. speaking in Fulton, Missouri, March 5, 1946.

Editor's Note - The time period of The Cold War is and will forever be a point of debate for historians, politicians, governments, and those who served. Some say it began soon after the Russian Revolution AKA The Bolshevik Revolution or October Revolution of 1917, most however use the dates of 1945 or 1946 soon after WW II, and ending in 1991. Others however contend the Cold War never really ended but thawed somewhat and is now beginning to chill once more. Please consider the above dates as a focus period only.

Agent Orange and Other Defoliants

agent orange

agent orange

Agent Orange Review
Republished from Dept. of Veteran Affairs Public Health Link
Vol. 26, No.1 Winter 2012

Download full issue

Facts about Herbicides
Is a blend of tactical herbicides the U.S. military sprayed from 1962 to 1971 during Operation Ranch Hand in the Vietnam War to remove trees and dense tropical foliage that provided enemy cover.

Agent Orange
More than 19 million gallons of various “rainbow” herbicide combinations were sprayed, but Agent Orange was the combination the U.S. military used most often. The name “Agent Orange” came from the orange identifying stripe used on the 55-gallon drums in which it was stored. Herbicide-sprayed areas forests near the demarcation zone, forests at the junction of the borders of Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam, and mangroves on the southernmost peninsula of Vietnam and along shipping channels southeast of Saigon.

Heavy sprayed areas included
The U.S. Department of Defense developed these tactical herbicides specifically to be used in “combat operations.” They were purchased from chemical companies and sent to Vietnam. Tactical herbicides also were used, tested, and stored in areas outside of Vietnam.

Agent Orange active ingredients and characteristics
The two active ingredients in the Agent Orange herbicide combination were equal amounts of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), which contained traces of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

Dioxins are pollutants that are released into the environment by burning waste, diesel exhaust, chemical manufacturing, and other processes. TCDD is the most toxic of the dioxins, and is classified as a human carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency.

The dioxin TCDD was an unwanted byproduct
Agent Orange dries quickly after spraying and breaks down within hours to days when exposed to sunlight (if not bound chemically to a biological surface such as soil, leaves and grass) and is no longer harmful.

For more information on TCDD, read the (63 KB, PDF) from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease.

fact sheet on chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

The Balkans

balkans

Photo credit: KFOR - Photos by Major Gernot Schwarzenberger, Austrian Air Force

balkans

Photo credit: KFOR - Photos by Major Gernot Schwarzenberger, Austrian Air Force

Second Lift of Hungarian QRF Troops Arrives

MOSTAR, Bosnia Herzegovina — Navy Vice Adm. Richard Gallagher, U.S. European Command deputy commander, stands with Amb. Charles English, U.S. Amb. Bosnia Herzegovina to view an open-house display, June 5, 2008. The event was part of a day of friendship to commemorate defense cooperation between Bosnia Herzegovina and the U.S. The day of friendship also included a Ramstein C-130 airdrop and jump; a wing pinning ceremony; an F-16 fly over; short speeches from the two countries’ leaders; and a parade of troops from both countries. Leaders of the countries met for discussions and signed a Memorandum of Agreement for military assistance.

Helping former military personnel
reintegrate into civilian life in Bosnia and Herzegovina

19, December 2012

Since 2006 the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been reforming its structure, focusing on downsizing the military and eliminating redundancy. But for many discharged personnel, military life is the only one they have known. Adjusting to civilian life can be difficult and securing consistent employment is one of the many challenges that they face.

The Alliance has sponsored the NATO-Perspektiva Programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2010, through a NATO Trust Fund supported by Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM), which has experience retraining military personnel, is in charge of implementing the programme, which is designed to work alongside the ongoing downsizing of the armed forces. The programme helps former military personnel reintegrate into civilian society through counseling, education, training and small business grants.

“The Programme provides crucial assistance to individuals and families in integrating socially and economically within the complex civil society of Bosnia and Herzegovina,” says Gianluca Rocco, the IOM Chief of Mission in the country.

“It supports the local economy through the development of sustainable small businesses, and contributes to ongoing peace and security efforts in the country,” he adds.
Adjusting to civilian life

With skills that are not easily transferable to civilian life, many former military personnel must adapt their current skills or learn a new one. The difficult economic climate has made the transition even more difficult, but the NATO-Perspektiva Programme is helping former military personnel to carve out a new career and a new livelihood.

Perspektiva has four regional offices throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, allowing for individual programmes to be set up and tailored to each recipient based on their needs. Nearly 3,000 people have received assistance under the programme.

One example is Marinko Marjanović, who began preparing for an alternate source of income after learning he would be discharged from the military. With a wife, daughter and mother to support, he decided to turn his part-time hobby of growing strawberries into a full-time job. With help from the NATO-Perspektiva Programme, Mr Marjanović purchased machinery that allows him to cultivate more land, expanding production by 33 per cent.

Another beneficiary is Mehmed Kaplan, a mechanic technician. After being discharged from the Air Force, the 39-year-old from Visoko decided to start EUROKOV, a family business that makes hand-forged wrought iron fences, gates, garden sets and other products.

Mr Kaplan applied to the NATO-Perspektiva Programme for assistance in purchasing a set of tools, profile cutters and a compressor. These tools enabled the company to expand, enhancing the types of products and services offered, and further strengthening their competitiveness.
Wider benefits

The services provided by NATO-Perspektiva often have wider benefits beyond the former military personnel who participate in the programme. EUROKOV, for example, provides a source of income for three families: Mr Kaplan and his two brothers, who also work at the company.

“The NATO Trust Fund for Bosnia and Herzegovina highlights the wide-ranging positive aspects of NATO support to the country, beyond the traditional military and security related assistance,” points out Mr Rocco. “It encompasses support which directly enhances the socioeconomic situation of citizens, families, and small communities."